Besides the need for enhancing capacity which is being met through major capital works like the DFC project, investment in rolling stock, providing improved terminal access, and improvements and investment in the last leg connectivity between the rail network and the cargo loading and unloading points are likely to be key areas that will need to be addressed through various policy initiatives of the Railways. Improvement in Existing PPP Structures:Existing PPP structures need improvement. Indian Railways needs to consider putting in frameworks for RFQ, RFP and concession agreement templates (as is already done in many other ministries) to bring in greater transparency in the PPP process. It is also imperative that the Indian Railways appreciates that PPP initiatives must be those where there is a sharing of both risk and reward of investment by both partners in the process Time bound implementation for Capacity Enhancement Works: Railways need to give high priority to implementations of DFC Projects. A time bound finalisation of the tenders should be the first step towards implementation of these high priority projects. Station Modernisation Projects and High-speed corridors: (Mumbai-Ahmedabad, Delhi-Amritsar, and Delhi-Patna etc) should be implemented on PPP basis. These projects are likely to need strong financial support from the Central Government in terms of Viability Gap Funding. Last Mile Connectivity: Railways needs to expedite the approval process with a view to providing time bound clearances as required for various Rail connectivity projects. Railway should consider the creation of a dedicated cell for such approvals. Zero tolerance towards Safety and Accidents: Indian Railway needs to focus on finalising various technological and safety related up gradations, such as automatic block signalling, TPWS (Train Protection Warning System), Train Management System (TMS), Anti-Collision Device, Centralised Train Control Systems, Integrated Security Systems etc. Freight charges: Any change in classifications or freight charges should be periodic. Proposed changes need to be intimated to industry at least with a minimum three months prior notice, so that industry can plan logistics accordingly. Duty concession: All raw materials (at least for cases where these are not made in India at all) which are being imported for use in Indian Railways applications for locomotives, carriages, wagons, track etc, should be permitted on a concessional rate of duty or a zero per cent duty.